This manual has been OCR scanned and there have been some minor changes to allow it to be put into a HTML format. There are likely some errors, and also due to the age of the unit, there are some errors due to advances since the manual was produced. NiCad batteries are no longer made, and the NiMh which replaces them is available in a range of mAh from around 600 to 2500 and I have found with the lower values one is some times limited to 10 (not 60) flashes, but with higher values it can be well over the figures stated. The same applies with non rechargeable batteries, the cheaper batteries often fail after very few flashes, with the main problem being the recycle time, this can be in the minuets rather than seconds.

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I have not bothered with other than English, as never been asked for manual in any other language, and my OCR scan will not function with other than English. Since corrected in Wales spelling have been corrected to proper English not American. The tables had to be hand done, and since most cameras have better than 400 ASA I may extend them when I have time. Also we now call ASA = ISO but could not see point in changing the letters. I have insulation tape on the battery door as it has come open from time to time, and I do not want to lose my rechargeable batteries. At the time of buying it was selected because it would work with rechargeable batteries, many flash guns of the time would be damaged using rechargeable batteries. The hot shoe is extra low voltage, so unlikely to damage the newer camera, but clearly that can’t be guaranteed.

Vivitar Dedicated Electronic Flash
Flash électronique à couplage d’automatismes
Systemintegriertes Elektronenblitzgerät
Flash electrónico con acoplamiento de automatismos
Instruction Manual

When using your photographic equipment, basic safety precautions should always be followed, including the following:
1. Read and understand all instructions.
2. Close supervision is necessary when any equipment is used by or near children. Do not leave equipment unattended while in use.
3. Care must be taken as burns can occur from touching hot parts.
4. Do not operate equipment with a damaged cord or if the equipment has been dropped or damaged - until it has been examined by a qualified service-man.
5. Do not let cord hang over edge of table or counter or touch hot surfaces.
6. If an extension cord is necessary, a cord with a suitable current rating should be used. Cords rated for less amperage than the equipment may overheat. Care should be taken to arrange the cord so that it will not be tripped over or pulled.
7. Always unplug equipment from electrical outlet when not in use. Never yank cord to pull plug from outlet. Grasp plug and pull to disconnect.
8. Let equipment cool completely before putting away. Loop cord loosely around equipment when storing.
9. To protect against electric shock hazards, do not immerse this equipment in water or other liquids.
10. To avoid electric shock hazard, do not disassemble this equipment, but take it to a qualified serviceman when some service or repair work is required.
Incorrect reassembly can cause electric shock hazard when the equipment is used subsequently.

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1. Eyelight Panel (standard on 3500 only)
2. Zoom/Bounce Flash Head
3. Module Release Button
4. Dedicated Module
5. PC Connection (Standard Module only)
6. Audible Signal On/Off Switch
7. Sensor
8. Slide Rule Calculator
9. Zoom Position indicator
10. Autowinder Exposure Index Mark
11. ASA/DlN Selector Switch (ISO its now called)
12. Index Line
13. Auto Range Brackets and f-Stop Indtcators
14. 28mm Panel Auto Range lndicator
15. Bounce Position indicator
16. Battery Compartment Cover
17. Flash Ready Light/Open Flash Button
18. External Power Connection (remove cover)
19. Film Speed Selector (DM/C, DM/N2 only)
20. Module Mode Selector Switch
(3 Auto f-Stops, Manual, Autowinder* Modes)
21. Mounting Foot with Lock Wheel
22. Sufficient Light Indicator
23. Flash On/Oft Switch
24. Nikon Model EM Position
25. TTL Flash Position
* Not applicable for Canon, Nikon 2

flash5 flash6


To prepare the unit for operation. familiarize yourself with the controls and indicators. Follow these simple steps, turn back to Page 3, fold out the illustration section and place your own unit beside it. Locate all the controls, indicators, and other features that are called out, so you will be able to find them easily when they are referred to in the instructions. Then proceed as follows:

1. Attach Dedicated Module
To attach the Dedicated Module, hold it in the left hand and hold the body in the right hand. Hook the end over the lug on lhe lower right-hand edge of the body and then bring the two parts together until the Dedicated Module Release Latch (3) on the left side engages and locks the two parts together. (See illustration “A.”)

2. Install Batteries
Open the Battery Compartment Door (16) by sliding it in the direction of the arrow. Insert two AA alkaline or NiCad batteries or a Vivitar NC-5 NiCad Battery pack according to the position markings shown in the compartment.

3. Energize the Unit
Slide the ON/OFF Power Switch (23) to the right, ‘on’ position (red shows). Wait for the Ready Light (17) to come on.

4. Set the Film Speed
Set ASA/DIN Selector Switch index mark (12) on flash head to match film in camera.

5. Set Desired F-Stop and Flash Range
Select desired auto range and f-stop on the flash head Slide Rule Calculator (8).
Example: 100 ASA/21 DlN, Normal zoom position (N), range 3.2 ft (1 m) to 10 ft (3 m) at f8. Orange
Auto Range Mode.
Slide Module Mode Selector Switch (20) to red, blue or orange dot to match range selected on flash head calculator dial.

6. Note the Beeper Switch and Flash-Ready Light
The Beeper ON/OFF Switch (6) controls the audible beeper signal. When the switch is set to ON, the beeper signal will sound when the flash is ready to fire. The beeper signal consists of short evenly spaced beeps. Setting the switch to OFF silences the beeper; however, flash ready will still be indicated by the Flash Ready Light (1 7) on the back of the unit and in the camera viewfinder of those dedicated cameras that have this feature.

7. Test Open Flash Button and Sufficient Light Indication
Use the Open Flash Button (17) and the Sufficient Light indication to test the flash operation and the auto ranges The sufficient light indication functions only in the auto mode. If enough light reaches the subject tor a correct exposure, and if the beeper is on, a long, steady beeeep will be heard. To test these functions, set an auto range covering a medium distance and point the unit toward a fairly close, light-coloured wall; press the flash ready light. The unit will fire, but the flash ready light and the beeper should come on again almost immediately, indicating that the thyristor control has allowed only a small part of the flash charge to be expended. The Sufficient Light indicator (22) will also come on to confirm that the subject is within the auto range. Repeat this test with subjects at various distances, noting that the sufficient light indication comes on as long as the subject is within the auto range; (however, very dark non-reflective objects may not show sufficient light at the limits of the range). Notice also that recycle time increases with subject distance, because more light is required, which uses more of the charge in the flash capacitor. By testing with the open flash button, you can determine in advance that the object will receive enough light for proper exposure without wasting film. This test is particularly useful with bounce flash.

8. Bounce Flash
By "bouncing" flash off reflective surfaces such as ceilings or walls, subjects can be more softly lighted, creating varied effects. To maximize flash range in bounce positions, the zoom head should be in the telephoto position. Avoid coloured reflective surfaces when using colour film, since bounced light will be influenced by such colours, affecting results accordingly. To determine correct operating range under "bounce" conditions, use the sufficient light indication previously explained, with flash in auto mode.

9. Teet the Manual Mode
Set the flash mode to "M/TTL" and fire the flash. Notice that the recycle time is at the maximum and remains the same at all distances. At the "M" setting, maximum light is produced, using all of the charge in the flash capacitor. To obtain correct exposure at the "M" setting, use the following procedure:
1. Set Index Line (12) on the film speed selector switch on the flash slide rule calculator dial to the ASA/DIN speed of the film you're using.
2. Set mode on dedicated flash module to "M/TTL" (manual position).
3. Focus on your subject and note the flash-to-subject distance. Locate this distance on the flash slide rule calculator dial distance scale.
4. Set your lens to the f-stop indicated by the aperture scale on the flash slide rule calculator (8), directly above your flash-to-subject distance.

5. When the flash is charged and ready, the visual and audible ready indicators will function as discussed previously.
6. Note:
a) There is no sufficient light indication in the manual mode.
b) When you're using the 28mm Wide Angle Panel, you must open your lens one full stop wider than the f-stop recommended on the flash aperture scale for the given camera-to-subject distance.

10. Eyelight Panel (standard with Model 3500 only)
The Eyelight Panel (1) has two functions. When photographing people, it adds a pleasing highlight to your subject's eyes and fills in shadows when using your flash in the bounce position. Place the retaining clip of the panel on the top of the flash head, and raise the panel so that it faces your subject. This will reflect a small portion of the bounced light directly on your subject. With direct flash usage and the panel in the down position covering the flash head lens, the eyelight panel provides extra wide angle 28mm flash coverage. Zoom head must be in the "W" (wide) position. Open camera lens one full stop wider than indicated by the calculator dial, when used in manual flash operation mode.

11. Macro Flash Sensor Operation
(Optional Accessory)
Follow the general mounting instructions of the MFS-1 as shown in the MFS-1 instruction sheet with the following exceptions:
1. lf you want to retain your dedicated interface connections with your camera, do not attach the flash swivel shoe.
2. Follow the general instructions given in this instruction book. Note the following exceptions for your camera:
a) Close down aperture 4 stops from the auto f-stop chosen in instruction step 5.
b) Canon camera lenses must be set manually and the 4 f-stop compensation applies as well. Do not set the lens in the "A" position.
c) For TTL cameras, use Auto modes on module (not "TTL" position) and set f-stop per 2a) above.
d) For Nikon EM, use Auto modes on module (not "EM" position) and set f-stop per 2a) above.
3. If you decide to use the swivel shoe with the flash "on camera", you must set your flash shutter speed manually, and you will not receive dedicated viewfinder information. You can still utilize automatic flash operation as discussed previously in step 5.
4. To utilize full dedicated macro flash interface with the flash off camera, attach the Dedicated Sensor Cord accessory DSC-1 to the module and connect it to the flash unit. You can now use the swivel shoe and still retain full camera/flash dedication.
5. Please refer to the following MFS-1 Automatic Exposure Chart for details.


Camera Lens Setting and Corresponding Rangers

ASA 25 50 100 200 400 800 1600 3200 6400 Automatic Range
Red Mode F-Stop 4 5.6 8 11 16 22       8 in - 8 ft
200 mm - 2.5 m
Blue Mode F-Stop 8 11 16 22 32         8 in - 4 ft
200 mm - 1.25 m
Orange Mode F-Stop 16 22 32             8 in - 2 ft
200 mm - 0.62 m

12. Vari-Power/Slave (Optional Accessory)
Any number of remote slave/flash units may be set up and automatically fired in synchronization by the flash connected to your camera. The Vari-Power module allows you to use your flash unit independently of the camera body. The flash unit can be set to operate as a full power manual slave unit, or at any of the reduced power settings: ½, ¼, ⅛ or 1/16. In addition, the Vari-Power/Slave may be used as a Vari-Power unit on camera or off with the slave in the OFF position.

13. High-Voltage Input Receptacle
Three optional accessory power supplies are available. They are the High Voltage Power Pack (HVP-I ), the Power Pistol Grip (PPG-I ), and the Vivitar SB-4 Adapter.
All of them plug into the High-Voltage Input Receptacle (18). The HVP-1 accepts a 510-volt battery which provides very fast recycle time and many more flashes than the self-contained batteries alone. The PPG-1 accepts four AA size alkaline or NiCad batteries, which decreases recycle time by as much as 50 percent and approximately doubles the number of flashes. The SB-4 Adapter allows the flash unit to operate from a 110 or 220-volt AC outlet, which is a convenience and a saving when many flash shots are being made in a home or studio. Fresh alkaline or NiCad batteries must always be left in place even when the accessory power supplies are being used, since they provide the low voltage and low current required to operate the microprocessor circuits.

14. Dedicated Module Instructions
Detailed instructions for operating the Dedicated Module with your camera are contained in the dedicated function manual enclosed.

15. To Taka a Picture
Once you have gone through the familiarization procedure described above, you will understand the workings of the flash system well enough to begin to utilize its great potential. However, the following checklist is provided as a convenient reference for the picture-taking procedure.

a) Load camera with film and note the film speed.

b) Mount flash on camera and turn lock ring down to right against shoe firmly. Caution: Do not over tighten!
c) Set camera to X-sync speed (unless the dedicated module does that automatically).

d) Set ON/OFF switch to ON to energize flash unit.

e) Set film speed on flash calculator and module (DM/C, DM/N2 only).

f) Set Zoom Position Indicator (9) to correspond to camera lens coverage.

g) Choose one of three f-stops that provides a suitable auto range for your subject; set this auto range on the Module Mode Selector Switch (20) and the corresponding f-stop on your camera lens.

h) Focus and compose the picture.

i) Note flash-ready signal and shoot.


Guide Number

Flash Head Zoom Position ASA 100 DIN 21
  (ft) (m)
Extra-wide with Eyelight Panel (3500 only) 45 14
Wide 66 20
Normal 80 24
Tele 94 28

Angle of Illumination

Zoom Flash Head Position Focal Length Coverage Horizontal Vertical
Extra-wide with Eyelight Panel (3500 only) 28 mm 70º 53º
Wide 35 mm 60º 45º
Normal 50 mm 46º 34º
Tele 85 mm 31º 23º

Number of Flashes and Recycle Time

Power Source Number of Flashes Recycle Time
  Automatic Manual Automatic Manual
2 AA Alkaline 800 140 0.5 sec 9 sec
2 AA NiCad 300 60 0.5 sec 7 sec
SB-4 (AC) Unlimited Unlimited 0.5 sec 4 sec
HVP-1 3000 1800 0.5 sec 1 sec

Automatic f-Stop Settings and Corresponding Ranges

  Film Speed Zoom Flash Head Position
  ASA 100 ASA 400 Normal Wide Tele Extra-Wide
Red Mode f-stop f2 f4 2.5-12 m (8.3-40') 2-10 m (6.6-33') 3-14 m (10-47') 1.5-7 m (5-23')
Blue Mode f-stop f4 f8 1.2-6 m (4-20') 1-5 m (3.3-16.5') 1.5-7 m (5-23') 0.7-3.5 m (2.3-11.5')
Orange Mode f-stop f8 f16 1-3 m (3.3-10') 0.7-2.5 m (2-8') 1.3-3.5 m (4-11') 0.5-1.75 m (1.5-5.5')

Autowinder Setting (except Canon Module)

Autowinder mode (2 frames/sec) can also function as a varipower setting (⅛th power)

Flash Duration
Manual: 1/2,000 second
Automatic: 1/2,000-1/30,000 second
Sensor Measuring Angle
18º ± 3º

External Power Source Jack
Accepts optional HVP-1, SB-4, PPG-1
(Limit sequential firing after ready signal to under
25 flashes)

PC Cord Socket
On Standard Module DM/S only

Accessories included
Eyelight Panel/28mm Extra-Wide Angle Panel (3500 only)
PC-1 Cord (with Standard Module only)

Dedicated Modules Available
DM/S (Standard), DM/C (Canon), DM/M-TTL (Minolta),
DM/N (Nikon), DM/N-2 (Nikon)*, DM/O (Olympus), DM/P
(Pentax), DM/Y-C (Yashica/Contax)
*F-3 Adapter required for use on Nikon F-3

Optional Accessories
External Power Sources HVP-1, SB-4, PPG-l
Filter Adapter FA-3, Filter Kits FK-2, WFK-2
Macro Flash Sensor MFS-l
Charge 12/20 Charger and NC-S 2-cell NiCad Battery Pack
Dedicated Sensor Cord DSC-1
Pistol Grip components
Remote Flash Trigger with Rotating Hot Shoe SL-2
Bounce Diffuser BD-3 (3500 only)

Specifications subject to change without notice.

As time permits I will try to continue adding the Module manual, and pictures, but felt it was better to publish to the point I had reached, rather than wait for it to be completed.



Module1 Module2

The base of your Vivitar flash unit is an interchangeable dedicated module; it mates with your particular make of camera and insures proper operation of the various dedicated flash functions. If you have more than one camera system with dedicated flash functions' you can have a dedicated module for each to adapt your flash body to each camera system.
CAUTION: Be sure that you always use the correct dedicated module for the camera system in use. That is, always use a Canon module with Canon cameras, a Minolta module with Minolta cameras, etc.

Dedicated flash functions include such items as dedicated "X" sync speed control, flash ready light in camera, sufficient light indicator in camera, through the-lens (TTL) flash metering, lens aperture control from flash unit, and programmed control of lens apertures. Different camera systems have different combinations of these functions. Because the combinations are constantly changing as new models appear on the market, no effort will be made in these instructions to describe the application of each dedicated module to each camera system. Instead, the functions will be described in detail. Consult the instructions in the camera Owners Manual to determine which functions are available to you.


After you have familiarized yourself with the body of your flash system, study the dedicated functions described below and begin to realize the total capability of your Vivitar dedicated flash system in combination with your dedicated camera. Here are the various dedicated features:

1. Dedicated "X" Sync Setting. On dedicated cameras, the correct shutter speed for flash synchronization is set automatically by the flash unit when the FLASH READY light comes on. To verify that this function is working on your camera, set the camera shutter speed to 1/500 with the flash unit turned on and the flash set to manual mode. Trip the camera shutter to fire the flash and listen to the sound of the shutter, which should be slow for flash sync speed. Before the flash recharges to ready, wind the camera and trip the shutter a second time, it will fire at 1 /500. NOTE: On some cameras, dedicated "X" sync will function at only one dial setting; for example, AUTO setting on the camera shutter speed dial. (Refer to your camera Owners Manual.)

2. Dedicated Ready Light. On dedicated cameras, flash ready is indicated in the viewfinder. With the flash installed on the camera, turn the flash on while looking in the camera viewfinder. Make sure the beeper on the flash unit is in the ON position. When the beeper signals READY, a light should appear in the viewfinder. On some models with a needle movement, the needle will move to the "X" sync speed to indicate ready. On some cameras, the correct shutter speed is displayed numerically. NOTE: On some cameras, the ready light signal will function at only one camera setting; for example, the AUTO setting on the camera speed dial. (Refer to your camera Owners Manual.)

3. Sufficient Light Indicator (SLI). Some dedicated cameras provide a sufficient light indication in the viewfinder. This signal will appear as a fast blinking light of short duration immediately following the exposure. On some cameras having this function, Vivitar has chosen to favour the audible beep signal and the green indicator lamp (2) as a more positive SLI indication than the camera maker's viewfinder indicator. With the flash in the AUTO mode (or the M/TTL mode with those cameras with TTL) trip the shutter, making sure that you are within the auto operating range. The SLI will verify correct exposure. NOTE: In the TTL position, the SLI cannot be used to pre-check the auto range prior to exposure.

4. ASA/DIN Setting. Some cameras are designed so that the flash information is programmed into the camera body. Modules incorporating this function have an ASA/DIN Selector (1) which must be set so that the film speed set on the camera body matches the film speed set on the module.

5. Through-The-Lens (TTL) Flash Metering' Some cameras are designed to read the flash exposure within the camera body itself. In this mode, the camera body acts as the flash sensor, turning off the flash when enough light has reached the film for correct exposure. With the flash installed on the camera, set the flash mode selector switch on the module to the M/TTL position (3). Making sure that the flash and camera ASA/DlN film speed settings are the same, select a mid-range lens setting on the flash such as f8 and note the maximum auto distance. Set the lens to the ,-stop indicated. Making sure that the beeper on the module is in the ON position, focus at a subject within the auto distance. Press the shutter release. The flash will fire and a long "beeeep" will be heard, and the green indicator lamp will light to indicate proper TTL flash exposure. Now change the lens setting to a smaller f-stop value, e.g. f1 6. Focus at the same subject and press the shutter release again. No long "beeeep" will be heard, indicating an out of range flash position and telling you that the camera did not receive enough light or proper exposure. By using the flash calculator scale, the maximum auto distance can always be calculated in advance for non-bounce, non-filtered flash shots. When the Sufficient Light signal is not achieved in the TTL operating mode, open the lens to a wider setting and shoot again. (NOTE: Film must be in the camera to test TTL function.)

6. Non-Dedicated "X" Synchronization. All cameras and shutters with internal flash contacts have prescribed shutter speed settings for synchronization with electronic flash. (Refer to your camera Owners Manual to determine which speeds can be used.) With the flash mounted on the camera hot shoe, turn the flash on and wait for the ready light on the flash unit. Set the camera lo the prescribed flash speed (refer to your camera Owners Manual). Trip the shutter release. The flash should fire. If the camera does not have a hot shoe, use a Vivitar PC-.l sync cord to interconnect the camera (or shutter) with the flash unit. The Vivitar Dedicated Module "Standard" has been designed specifically for such cameras. It has a connection for the PC cord and will work with all non-dedicated camera bodies or shutters with internal "X" sync flash contacts.

Some camera makers have designed particular model cameras offering dedicated functions beyond those listed above. Please refer to your camera Owners Manual or camera dealer as to the exact models incorporating the following functions:

1. Lens Setting Function: Some dedicated cameras are designed in such a way that the flash will set the lens to the proper f-stop as selected on the dedicated module. On cameras of this design, e.g. Canon AE-l, AE-1 Program and A-1, the lens must be set to the Full Auto Position. As the f-stop is selected on the flash body, it will automatically set the lens to the same setting. The film speed set on the camera must be the same as that set on the flash and flash module. NOTE: f-stops must not be selected which exceed the capability of the lens. Example: 135mm 12.8 lens - maximum f-stop selected on module is f4.0 (blue dot at 100 ASA), or f8.0 (orange dot at 100 ASA).

2. Program Flash Function: In the programmed auto flash mode, the camera automatically selects a lens aperture, generally between f8 and the maximum full open aperture of the lens, when the subject brightness from the ambient light is low; the camera's program selects a large aperture. When the ambient light is brighter, it selects a smaller aperture. The actual programmed auto flash range will vary with the aperture selected by the camera. When the ambient light is low, the operating range is long. When the ambient is high, the range will be short. However, in each situation, the sum of the ambient and the flash light will produce a correct exposure.

3. Nikon EM Cameras: Set module at "EM" position (4). With this camera only, when flash is charged and ready to lire, a steady LED will go on in the viewfinder. Touch shutter release to turn on camera metering system. Focus, then select desired f-stop on lens aperture ring. Out-of-range will be signalled by beeper as follows: (Slow "beep... beep... beep" signal indicates flash is ready to fire, as discussed in Section 6 of your flash Owners Manual.) Rapid "beep-beep-beep" signal indicates incorrect f-stop setting (out of range) when taking pictures. (See Note below.) If out of range, adjust aperture ring in either direction until rapid beeps become slow beeps. You're now ready to shoot.

NOTE: When the EM camera is not in use and the flash is left turned on with the beeper switch on, rapid beeping warns that flash power is still on while the camera meter power has gone off.

7. Autowinder Flash Operation (not applicable on all flash modules). For using your flash with an autowinder (up to 2 frames per second), the flash will deliver up to 4 flashes in sequence at 2 frames per second. Allow your flash 30 seconds to recycle before every sequence. The autowinder setting also reduces the manual output to 1 /B power (-3 f-stops) for fill light applications.
a) Set dedicated flash module to the yellow A position (5).
b) Set slide rule calculator dial on flash head to correct ASA/DlN film speed you have in your camera, using yellow   index mark instead of white index line.
c) Refer to flash-to-subject distance on calculator and set your lens accordingly, as discussed above. The one-stop compensation for using the 28mm panel, as mentioned in your flash Owner's Manual, also applies here.
d) Note: The sufficient light indicator will light when you're using the Autowinder setting. Disregard it.
e) In any flash operation mode without external power source, avoid more than 25 consecutive flashes, as this may cause damage to your flash.

We hope you will enjoy using your new Vivitar Dedicated Flash Unit for many years to come. If you have any questions about your new unit or about dedicated flash usage in general, please contact Vivitar Consumer Affairs, 2700 Pennsylvania Avenue, Santa Monica, CA 90406, USA,